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核桃幼树如何整形修剪?

时间:2020-10-14来源:兰草新文美食网

  核桃树适合采用什么树形?核桃幼树怎样进行整形修剪?核桃幼树什么时候定干?以下小编就作简单介绍,供网友们参考。

  一、整形修剪对核桃幼树的重要性

  合理的树体结构是丰产的基础。在核桃树幼龄阶段培养树形至关重要。在核桃定植后经过1年的缓苗期,从第2年开始逐渐进人迅速生长期,待发分枝后开始整形修剪。早实品种稀植园以主干疏层形、自然开心形应用较为普遍。密植栽培常采用纺锤形和小冠疏层形。

  二、主千疏层形

  在中心干,干高1米左右,全树6~7 个主枝,分3 层。最下层为3 个主枝,方位角1200°左右,第2 层2 个主枝,方位应与第 1层主枝错开,第3层1~2个主枝,层间距为40~50厘米。每主枝上着生2~3个侧枝。

  1、定干:苗高达1.2 米以上时定干,整形带内要有5 个以上饱满芽。待芽萌发后,将整形带以下的芽全部抹去,整形带内除选留3 个主枝外其余梢夏季摘心,以抑制生长,枝过多时要适当疏除。

  2、主枝的选培:冬剪时选择上部最直立的1 年生枝作中央领导干,在50~60 厘米处短剪,第 1层主枝均在30 一40 厘米处短剪。第2 年、第3 年用同样方法留出2 一3 层主枝。

  3、侧枝的选择:基部3主枝上的侧枝一定要同向选留,防止互相干扰。第1侧枝距中心干50~60 厘米,第2侧枝距第 1侧枝40~50厘米。侧枝应避免并生,侧枝着生位置以斜侧为好,切忌留背后枝。

  4、各主枝生长势的调整:修剪时要注意保持中央领导干的绝对优势,及时控制竞争枝,适当多留辅养枝。要保持各级骨干枝之间的从属关系,同一层主枝上的侧枝后部强于前部,同层主枝大小基本相1司。注意调整和平衡骨干枝的长势,一般多采用抑强扶弱的方法。对于长势强的要开张角度,多疏旺枝,弱枝当头,以缓和生长势。弱者则选留强枝,适当抬高角度以平衡枝势。

  5、背下枝处理:凡是着生在第1层主侧枝上的背下枝,出现“倒拉”现象,并影响枝组生长的,应一律从基部疏除。树冠中上部主侧枝抽生的背下枝,可依据主侧枝开张角度的大小而决定去留。开张角度大时应剪除;开张角度小时,可利用背下枝代替原枝头,扩大分枝角度。若背后枝长势弱,并已形成花芽,可保留结果,逐步改为枝组。

  三、自然开心形

  核桃幼树无中央领导干的情况下,整形时先多留几个主枝,从中选留合适的3~4 个主枝,主枝上着生侧枝,侧枝上着生枝组,尽量使其相互错开,以提高光能利用。修剪时注意平衡三大主枝的生长势。具体修剪方法参考主干疏层形。

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  四、纺锤形

  一般干高60厘米左右定干,在树高约6 米时,有中央干,直立,其上自然分布15~20 个侧枝,向四周伸展,下部侧枝长而大,上部短而小,外观呈纺锤形。此树形适于早实品种的密植园。

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  以上就是小编介绍核桃幼树的整形修剪,如您有更好的补充请留言告诉我们。

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